Rokeach The Nature Of Human Values Pdf
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A Review of Rokeach's The Nature of Human Values
In his book The Nature of Human Values[^1^], Milton Rokeach explores the concept of values and its role in human behavior and society. He argues that values are the core concept across all the social sciences, as they influence both individual and collective attitudes and actions. He also proposes a classification of 36 terminal and instrumental values that can be used to measure and compare value systems of different groups and individuals.
Rokeach defines values as \"enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence\" (p. 5). He distinguishes between two types of values: terminal values, which are desired goals or outcomes, such as happiness, freedom, or world peace; and instrumental values, which are preferred modes of behavior or means to achieve terminal values, such as honesty, courage, or creativity. He suggests that each person has a relatively stable hierarchy of values that guides his or her choices and actions.
To empirically study values, Rokeach developed a value survey that consists of two lists of 18 values each: one for terminal values and one for instrumental values. He asked respondents to rank the values in each list according to their importance as guiding principles in their lives. He then analyzed the value rankings of different groups and individuals, such as students, teachers, religious leaders, political activists, and prisoners. He found that value systems vary according to demographic, cultural, ideological, and situational factors. He also found that value systems are related to other psychological constructs, such as attitudes, beliefs, personality traits, and behaviors.
Rokeach's book is a seminal contribution to the field of value research and has inspired many subsequent studies and applications. It provides a comprehensive theoretical framework and a practical tool for understanding and measuring human values. It also raises important questions about the nature, origin, development, and change of values in individuals and societies.
One of the main contributions of Rokeach's book is his identification of two universal value dimensions: self-transcendence versus self-enhancement, and conservation versus openness to change. Self-transcendence values reflect a concern for the welfare and interests of others, such as equality, social justice, and world peace. Self-enhancement values reflect a concern for one's own interests and achievements, such as power, wealth, and success. Conservation values reflect a preference for stability, security, and tradition, such as conformity, obedience, and respect for authority. Openness to change values reflect a preference for novelty, variety, and change, such as creativity, curiosity, and independence.
Rokeach also discusses the sources and consequences of value change. He argues that value change can occur as a result of personal experiences, social influences, or deliberate interventions. He suggests that value change can have positive or negative effects on individual and social well-being, depending on the direction and magnitude of the change. He also proposes some strategies for promoting desirable value change, such as education, persuasion, modeling, and reinforcement.
In conclusion, Rokeach's book is a classic work that has shaped the field of value research and practice. It offers a comprehensive and coherent theory of human values and their role in human behavior and society. It also provides a useful instrument for measuring and comparing value systems across different groups and individuals. It is a valuable resource for anyone interested in understanding and influencing human values. 061ffe29dd